In the decade of the 1950s, testimonies from people who claimed to have observed UFOs crew were rejected categorically by the UFO community, considered as a product of hallucinations, or at best as mere fake.
In those early years of UFO research, ufologists were concerned principally to give scientific support for studies of sightings. And therefore, considered that the cases which described a bizarre crew of UFOs would detract from their serious studies, losing credibility with the public.
However, the sudden appearance of several events and wide coverage by the media gave a new approach to the hitherto marginal phenomenon of the crews of the UFOs.
To a large extent, the researchers revised their assumptions about close encounters, thanks to the extraordinary case of Socorro (New Mexico), where a police officer claimed to have seen a mysterious object shaped like metal egg with two little people clad in white uniforms. Later, other police officers were able to confirm the presence of footprints in the landing area of the object. The marks were visible for several days. Burns encountered in the adjacent vegetation revealed that they had been produced by exposure to high temperatures.
The case was thoroughly investigated by the USAF and the FBI, concluding that the officer, Lonnie Zamora, told the truth.
The Socorro sighting was admitted by members of Project Blue Book as UNIDENTIFIED, the only case in its files that included: landing, physical evidence (footprints) and occupants of an unknown aircraft.
Hector Quintanilla, head of the project and known for his skepticism about the UFO phenomenon, wrote in the Journal of the secret services "Intelligence Studies" this statement about the Zamora sighting: "This is the best documented case that exists, and we have not been able to find the vehicle that scared [Officer] Zamora despite extensive research.
On the other hand, the renowned Dr. J. Allen Hynek (Northwestern astronomer and director of Dearborn Observatory), as a consultant, at that time, to the USAF, said the case was one of "the most important UFO sightings in the history of the study of the topic,” adding, “of all close encounters of the third type, this is what I think more clearly suggests a material and concrete craft".
CLOSE ENCOUNTERS: ARIADNE'S THREAD?
From that moment, ufologists were not just limited to UFO watching in the sky; UFOs had landed in different parts of the world, with their crews observed by hundreds of witnesses.
With the collection of testimonies from people who claimed to have observed the occupants of UFOs, ufologists believed they was another way to find out the purpose and origin of UFOs.
It was logical to assume, that a knowledge of the morphology and activities of the crew of the "alien craft" could represent the key to unraveling the enigma.
However, initial expectations were soon overwhelmed with the results of the first investigations carried out.
Contrary to what was initially expected, that people almost always observed the same kind of aliens that spoke in favor of a uniform and objective phenomenon, they found a multitude of different descriptions.
The heterogeneity in the descriptions of the alleged "aliens" was so broad, raising hundreds of types of "Aliens" observed in or around UFOs, created a great controversy in the UFO community worldwide.
While at first there was a debate between supporters and opponents of this diversity, with the passing of the years, observations of various UFO crew grew in such a way that researchers accepted the possibility that multiple extraterrestrial civilizations were visiting the Earth.
Thousands of testimonies, collected by ufologists, refer to "aliens" as tall, normal, short, and sometimes diminutive with arms that protrude from the chest, no arms, transparent, with claws instead of hands, with green lights in the skin, the shape of sugar cubes, covered with hair, completely bald, with none, one, two or three eyes, with heads of all imaginable and unimaginable shapes, physiognomy reminiscent of Italian or Japanese tourists, frogs, birds, monkeys, horses, kangaroos, insects, lizards, octopus, et cetera.
Finally, a plurality so eloquent and extravagant, that the UFO files can not be classified or ordered; it’s a disparate phenomenology.
We invite (challenge) readers to seek a physical characteristic that has not been observed in an alleged UFO alien sighting somewhere in the world.
In the 1970s, the researcher Jader U. Pereira authored a classic study of 333 cases of UFO landings, where the only conclusion was that most of the occupants of UFOs were humanoids with anthropomorphic characteristics, varying in height between 0.80 and 3 meters.
More recently, Patrick Huyghe (founder of The Anomalist) in a report on the typology of extraterrestrials, writes that there are four basic sections of UFO occupants: humanoid, animal, exotic, robotic, with at least 14 types and 49 variants.
Before trying to explain what hides behind this challenging phenomenon, I’ll expose the reader to several cases that clearly show the differences between the descriptions of the crews of UFOs:
GELATINOUS BEINGS DOMSTEN (SWEDEN) DECEMBER 20, 1953:
Rydberg and Hans Stig Gustavsson, when they returned to their homes after attending a party, noticed a saucer shaped object with three legs resting on the ground.
From the UFO, they were attacked by four creatures, one meter in height, gray, and devoid of appendages. The creatures seemed to be made of gelatin and were extremely slippery. During blows from the witnesses, the creatures’ bodies became deformed; Rydberg even entered his arm into one of them. Finally, due to the reaction of the witnesses, the creatures fled on board their artefact.
HAIRY DWARF CARACAS (VENEZUELA) NOVEMBER 28, 1954:
A classic South American ufology, where hairy creatures have been seen aboard UFOs...
Gustavo Gonzalez and Jose Ponce, while driving a van on the outskirts of Caracas, saw a strange bright balloon flying over the road. Stopping your vehicle to continue their observation, they were attacked by a "hairy dwarf" with gleaming eyes, only wearing a loincloth like a lucia dress.
The "dwarf", although looking ridiculous, possessed great strength and threw Gonzalez more than four meters away.
The unusual battle was interrupted by the action of another entity, that blinded Gonzalez by lightning. Jose Ponce, who was on the sidelines, declared that the beings, after collecting soil samples, entered the balloon which rose and disappeared.
EXTRATERRESTRIAL BAT SALTOWOOD (GREAT BRITAIN) NOVEMBER 16, 1963:
Four young men sighted a red object that disappeared behind some trees. Moments later, they saw a dark shape, the size of a person, with giant bat wings.
In West Virginia (USA) during the 1960's, the researcher John A. Keel investigated the multiple appearances of strange flying creatures, with huge, bright red eyes that roamed the area of Point Pleasant, accompanied by constant visions of UFOs, which were described as the Moth-man.
CYCLOPS AGGRESSIVE FORRENT, CORRIENTES (ARGENTINA) FEBRUARY 1965:
In early February, 1965, five luminous, transparent objects landed on the outskirts of Forrent (Argentina) and five creatures from a size ranging between 1.5 m and 2 m, with a single eye in the center of the forehead, attacked the witness. Apparently they tried to kidnap a good neighbor, who was saved by the heroic action of some of his friends.
The next day, five humanoids returned to the attack, but this time they were repelled by the whole people.
In Belo Horizonte (Brazil), two years before the incident in Forrent, on August 28, 1963, several boys came across a giant one-eyed brown entity, with a red complexion and no common facial traits such as ears and the nose.
PHOSPHORESCENT GOBLINS KELLY HOPKINS, KENTUCKY (USA) AUGUST 21, 1965:
Several witnesses at a farm in Kelly Hopkins, observed the landing of a multicolored object.
They were besieged by an undetermined number of strange phosphorescent creatures.
From inside the house ,where they were, they could see, through the windows and doors, beings of no more than one meter in height roaming around.
The creatures had huge bald heads, and bright yellow eyes.
Another important characteristic was the existence of disproportionately large ears in relation to lean bodies.
The witnesses shot at these beings.
Finally after three hours, the witnesses fled in terror to the nearest police station but indicating that the creatures were not hostile at any time.
CYCLOPS TINY AREQUIPA (PERU) SEPTEMBER 29, 1965:
Julio Lopez de Romana almost ran over, with his car, a small humanoid about 80 cm. with one eye on his face. Later he was chased by a UFO that accompanied him part of the way.
GNOMES REDHEADS BEBEDOURO, NORTH OF BELO HORIZONTE (BRAZIL) MAY 4, 1969:
While fishing, a soldier, José Antonio da Silva, was attacked by two beings about 122cm in height, that introduced him into the interior of their artefact, a vertical cylinder, with a saucer on top.
The beings, who looked remarkably like the classic Gnomes, had thick eyebrows, green eyes, big noses, funny, toothless mouths and huge ears.
To reinforce the aspect of little creatures of the forest, the beings had long beards and curly red hair which reached below the waist.
GIANT BRAINS DAPPLE GREY LANE, CALIFORNIA (USA) AUGUST 1971:
John Hodges and Peter Rodriguez saw two beings in the shape of brains (sic) of about 91 cm high, who led them into a spaceship, where they were waited upon by various humanoid beings.
GHOSTS ROUGHENED PASCAGOULA, MISSISSIPPI (USA) OCTOBER 12, 1973:
Charles Hickson and Calvin Parker described strange creatures that subjected them to an exhaustive medical examination.
The beings had extremely rough, pale skin with a silver gray and ghostly appearance.
They had no hair and eyes, and their faces had a conical nose and ears in conical shape. The arms ended in crab claws without fingers and their feet were round.
BIG FOOT AND UFOS IN GREENSBURG, PENNSYLVANIA (USA) OCTOBER 25, 1973:
The multiple observations of beings similar or identical to Big-foot with UFOs, suggests all sorts of theories about the origin of these creatures.
A farmer named Stephen Polasky, along with several witnesses (15), saw a bright red object land nearby.
Once they were near the object, two humanoids were observed, over 2 meters high, completely covered with hair and with two large yellow-green eyes.
The witness with his shotgun, shot the creatures, but were not found to be affected the creatues "saluted like a human."
(Similar to certain other cryptozoological creatures, the crew of UFOs seem to be immune to bullets)
NIGHTMARE CREATURES TORRIGLIA, GENOVA (ITALY) DECEMBER 6, 1974:
A guard, Zanfretta Fortunato, was the subject of an abduction by giant beings who seemed to have escaped from a terrifying nightmare.
At his solitary job, Zanfretta was surprised by several creatures described as more than three meters tall, with yellow-green, triangular bright eyes.
Their faces was filled with sharp spines instead of hair; they had no ears, Fortunato noted they also had horns. And in the middle of their foreheads, they had a third, very bright eye.
ALIEN ROBOTS ST. JEAN-EN-ROYANS (FRANCE) JANUARY 9, 1976:
Along with descriptions of the most colorful and extravagant "aliens", it was logical to expect to see robots on board UFOs.
And so, there are hundreds of cases where a wide range of alien robots were seen.
Jean Dolecki witnessed one such incident...
"I had the impression that it was a huge balloon, covered with silver paper (...). I found that the artefact was not sitting on the ground."
Then Mr. Dolecki described the occupants of the UFO he saw in the doorway of the sphere:
"They were not men, that I can assure you! It was more like robots, wearing silver clothes, giant robots, as high as the door (2 or 3 m). I saw that they had short legs and arms like telescopic rods which reminded me of fishing poles.”
Because of apprehension and distance, Dolecki could not see details of the robots’ heads, but added, they seemed to be quadrate [squarish].
CLONES TENDILLA, GUADALAJARA (SPAIN) DECEMBER 18, 1977:
A truly baffling case, in terms of UFOs crewscomes from Miguel Herrero Sierra, who, while driving his truck toward the swamp in Buendia (Tendilla), had a peculiar abduction by beings of an "anti-universe."
His experience began after suffering a breakdown with his vehicle, forcing him to stop.
At that moment, a completely normal individual, dressed in a white jumpsuit, invited him to climb aboard a hat-shaped UFO.
Inside the ship, Mr. Herrero Sierra was surprised to note that one of the crew of that object, was identical to him (sic):
"He was sitting with his back to me Sierra told under hypnosis, and turned around to look at me.
My first reaction (I seemed to stand before a mirror) was to approach him, and that's when (...) I was told we could not contact because he was like my negative.
It was exactly like me except that I have the scar on my left cheek; he had it on the right.
He said that we are parallel. The example was in the picture: we are the positive and negative of them or vice versa. Emphasizing that whatever we did, we have an impact on them, and if any of us died for any reason, the negative (to continue calling it that) also died."
THE ENIGMA OF THE UFONAUTS
As we have seen, the UFO phenomenon involving occupants is more complicated than what we might initially imagine.
British researcher Hilary Evans, an expert on the theme of the entities, wrote in his book Visions, Apparitions, Visitors from Space:
"In the past three decades, reports of UFO-related entities are on a scale that is in excess of the most common type of paranormal entitities, other than those in dreams.
And they present an extraordinary paradox, which is an anomalous phenomenon that is associated with a phenomenon that is abnormal, to an extent that its existence, to say nothing of its nature, is still very much in doubt."
Therefore, because the enigma has so many features, many researchers have proposed different hypotheses that may explain the reason for the diversity observed in the morphology of the crew.
The main currents of thought are as follows;
Some researchers argue that this diversity in the descriptions of UFOnauts, is a sharp test for the presence of different extraterrestrial civilizations visiting our planet.
The hypotheses are based on whether the observations of the occupants of the UFOs respond to simple tale: it would be more logical to suppose that there would be a repeat of the same descriptions, already known and disclosed, but each witness invents his own alien. Therefore, these varieties in the descriptions are proof that witnesses are really telling what they see, regardless of whether or not their descriptions coincide with what is already known to researchers.
Antonio Ribera, Spanish researcher and staunch defender of the extraterrestrial hypothesis (nuts and bolts), once wrote: "the observed morphological diversity among the crew (also called occupants) seems to postulate a variety of sources, but as on our own planet, let’s not forget, that white-Scandinavians, 2 meters tall, coexist with black-skin pygmies measuring 1.20 meters, and both are homo sapiens."
REPRESENTATIONS OF OUR COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
Supporting the theory of the great Analytical Psychologist Carl G. Jung, several UFO thinkers believe that the observations of alien spacecraft and associated crew are due to interactions between the mind of the witness and the collective unconscious.
Dr. Jung argued that our unconscious, besides being particular and private, shares with all our species a set of models, symbols and archetypes that are recognizable to all of us, gathered in enormous planetary mind (collective unconscious).
As our personal unconscious tries to help us mainly through dreams, the collective unconscious (covering the entire human race) could help in a certain time and under specific conditions, the whole of a society relying on symbolic representations that would have the same value as that of the experience of dreaming.
The main aspects that would operate for the planetary mind, would be the personal psychological conflicts of an individual, or global society as well, depending on which is manifested individually or collectively.
The communication would take place as stated above in a coded form, through an archetype, vision or mystical experience, that would try to send us a message that would alleviate this imbalance or mental illness.
"In the individual, explained Dr. Jung, the phenomena of abnormal convictions, visions, dreams, and so on, happen only when one suffers psychic dissociation; i.e., when there is a split between the conscious attitude and content that contrast of conflicts with the unconscious.
Precisely because the conscious mind is not aware of them and, therefore, is faced with a situation from which there seems no way out, this strange content can not be integrated directly, but indirectly expressed, thus generating views, beliefs, hopes, visions, and so forth, of an unexpected and seemingly inexplicable nature.
The projections are what we might call different representations as conditions arise, being merely personal or collective conditions from deeper, personal repressions that are manifested in our immediate environment; the collective content, such as religious conflicts, philosophical, political and social projections choose carriers from a corresponding genus.
One of these projections for a specific genus, would be the UFOs and their crews, as a result of our ancestral belief in God, angels, guardians, which is present in almost all cultures of humanity.
The belief would be "technologized," becoming more amenable for our society, which is accustomed to amazing technological development, where the space race has made us imagine the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations.
In his work Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Sky, Dr. Jung interpreted that UFOs were the epitome of a fundamental archetype of humanity, the Mandala, a symbol that represents an integration of all things psychic.
Therefore in this amalgam of human idealizations, which is the collective unconscious, extraterrestrial myth would be represented, which could be evoked in different ways, adapting to the social and personal mind-sets of witnesses, which would explain the reason for the reported diversity of occupants of UFOs.
These events have been increasing mainly due to two factors:
a. We are at the end of a millennium, which is a fear of the unknown and change.
b. The decline of traditional values and the decline in the social strata: scientific, political and especially religious.
The extraterrestrial myth would have germinated to cover the absence of such elements, and serve as an escape valve for a society immersed in current mental conflicts.
On physical manifestations accompanying the Collective Unconscious, researcher Salvador Freixedo believes that “like an individual's unconscious mind governing the functioning of much of your body, this giant collective mind, that is diffused and infiltrated in all individuals on the planet, governs the functioning of human society. The unconscious mind, both the individual and collective, is not only smart, it has a great energy that can sometimes manifest itself in psychical form, appreciated by our senses.
Thus, if the unconscious mind is capable of producing private psychical effects, such as those seen in poltergeist phenomena, the collective unconscious is capable of producing psychical phenomena that have a specific purpose for society."
MECHANISMS OF CAMOUFLAGE; DISTORTION THEORY
The most accepted theory by different researchers speculates that the crew of UFOs possess a mechanism of some kind, physical or mental, that allows them to take any physical form.
These beings, which inhabit other dimensions, may be able to "interfere" with the mind of people to show them the way they wanted or expected to see the same subject.
Through the manifestation of an extraordinary event, such as the sight of a strange light in the sky, these entities would create a state of mind with which to control or tune our brains.
Being in close connection with our mind, these entities can make or unmake our experience, enriching our culture, folklore, beliefs, and personality; we become co-creators and interpreters of what we observe.
Hilary Evans in this regard said, "The crucial factor of reports (abduction) is that each case is unique, and is reason enough to suspect that the external phenomenon has an inner meaning specific to each witness individually, assuming that the real motivating factor for the experience is far from the experiences recounted by the witnesses."
Therefore many researchers take us to the folklore of different civilizations to say that these entities have been playing with our credulity, adapting to our cultural environment so that the average person of a certain era would find it easier to believe in fairies and goblins than aliens and spaceships.
These entities controlling its manifestations, through our mind, will create a climate of uncertainty among ufologists, which would help them preserve their identity, and above all, cover the most important, clandestine activities they are developing on our planet.
The following case illustrates perfectly the contents of this hypothesis:
On ducks and aliens: Zimbawue (Africa) May 31, 1974
Peter and Frances, while traveling by car, observed a strange UFO over them, then under hypnosis reported the following experience to the researchers:
"Something" was introduced in the back seat during the trip. An unknown entity spoke to Peter, telling him not to worry about physical appearance; if he wanted, it could be transformed into anything imaginable, even a duck or a monster. The thoughts and desires of Peter could be read by them.